Modern Treaties

Comprehensive land claims agreements—also called modern treaties—are generally entered into where Aboriginal land and resource rights have not been addressed by previous treaties or any other legal means.

LCAC Map of Modern Treaties

Modern treaties represent nation-to-nation and government-to-government relationships between an Aboriginal signatory, the Government of Canada and in some cases, a province or territory. They are intended to further define and recognize the Aboriginal land and resource rights of the Aboriginal signatory, and to meaningfully improve the social, cultural, politi¬cal and economic well-being of the Aboriginal people concerned. At the same time, these agreements provide all signatories with a mutual foundation for the beneficial and sustainable development and use of Aboriginal peoples’ traditional lands and resources.

Modern treaties address such matters as:

  • Ownership and use of lands, waters and natural resources, including the subsurface;
  • Management of land, waters, and natural resources, including fish and wildlife;
  • Harvesting of fish and wildlife;
  • Environmental protection and assessment;
  • Economic development;
  • Employment;
  • Government contracting;
  • Capital transfers;
  • Royalties from resource development;
  • Impact benefit agreements;
  • Parks and conservation areas;
  • Social and cultural enhancement;
  • The continuing application of ordinary Aboriginal and other general programming and funds; and
  • Self-government and public government arrangements.

When modern treaties are ratified, the treaty rights they contain are constitutionally recognized and protected, and the terms of these agreements take precedence over other laws and policies in Canada.

Schedule of Modern Land Claims Agreements

Name of Agreement Effective Date
James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement November 1975
Northeastern Quebec Agreement January 1978
Inuvialuit Final Agreement June 1984
Gwich’in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement December 1992
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement May 1993
Yukon First Nations Final Agreements:
Champagne and Aishihik First Nations
First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun
Teslin Tlingit Council
Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation
Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation
Selkirk First Nation
Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation
Ta’an Kwäch’än Council
Kluane First Nation
Kwanlin Dün First Nation
Carcross/Tagish First Nation
February 1995
February 1995
February 1995
February 1995
July 1997
July 1997
July 1998
January 2002
October 2003
February 2005
October 2005
Sahtu Dene and Metis Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement September 1993
Nisga’a Final Agreement May 2000
Tlicho Land Claims and Self Government Agreement August 2003
Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement December 2005
Nunavik Inuit Land Claims Agreement July 2008
Tsawwassen First Nation Final Agreement March 2009
Eeyou Marine Region Land Claims Agreement July 2010
Maa-nulth Final Agreement April 2011
Yale First Nation Final Agreement (not yet in effect) June 2013
Tla’amin Final Agreement April 2016